This is a deformity of the big toe (hallux) known as Hallux Abducto Valgus. A prominent bump develops around the big toe joint as the toe moves towards the smaller toes, sometimes crossing over or under them. Another type of bunion, called a Tailor’s bunion or bunionette, affects the little toe as it moves inwards towards the other toes. Bunions can be aggravated by tight, narrow shoes with a pointed toe box but are usually caused by an abnormality in foot function, arthritis or a genetic predisposition to the disorder.
This is an over-use injury affecting the Achilles tendon, which runs down the back of the lower leg to the heel. Athletes, joggers, runners and other sports people are most commonly affected. A high heel tab on running shoes as well as improper training/ insufficient warming-up may aggravate it. Athletes over 35 are more prone to this injury due to impaired blood-flow to this tendon.
The patella tendon is an extension of the quadriceps muscles that attaches the kneecap to the shinbone. It is susceptible to overuse injuries where there is a lot of loading going through the quadriceps for example jumping or landing, hence its nickname ‘jumpers knee’. In the early stages of pain there may just be tendon inflammation, however if this isn’t treated properly it can progress to patella tendinosis, where degenerative changes are taking place.
Signs and symptoms
Symptoms include aching along the lower half of the tibia, usually anywhere from a few centimeters to half way up the shin. Pain is often worse during high impact activities and may progress to stress fractures of the tibia.
What are the causes of shin splints?
Shin splints are not a single medical condition. They are a symptom of an underlying problem. Shin splints often occur in people with flat feet. Excessive pronation causes the muscles and tendons in the front of the leg to overstretch and work harder during activity. Wearing inappropriate footwear when running, running on hard surfaces, muscle weakness and muscle tightness can all contribute to the development of shin pain.
Turf Toe is a disorder in which the ligaments around big toe joint or first MTP joint are sprained. This occurs after extremely forceful upward bending of the big toe. Morton’s neuroma is a condition that affects the common plantar digital nerves that run between the long bones (metatarsals) in the foot.Read more